This tutorial is for those who have no experience with installing a new hardware, or software, let alone working on Linux or running a Python script.
The tutorial includes setting up Raspberry Pi from the beginning, including Desktop Remote, preparing an Arduino with DS18B20 temperature sensors, executing a Python script in Raspberry Pi to collect and save the data to the SD Card on RPi. I updated the post with addition of Samba share to transfer the file between the host computer (your PC) and the Raspberry Pi.
Let say you have ordered a brand-new Raspberry Pi (RPi) with a SD card (at least 8GB, I used 16GB, type 1) and a power supply (5V, at least 2.5A). Today, you decide to set it up and record data from Arduinos. So let begin!